Düsseldorf Oberkassel am Rhein, Düsseldorf
Neuss is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district and owes its prosperity to its location at the crossing of historic and modern trade routes. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. In 1984 Neuss celebrated 2000 years since its foundation. It therefore holds the title of "Germany's oldest city" alongside the city of Trier.
Neuss was founded by the Romans in 16 BC as a military fortification with the current city to the north of the castra, on the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Erft, with the name of Novaesium. Later a civil settlement was founded in the area of today's center of the town during the 1st century AD. Novaesium, together with Trier (Augusta Treverorum), is one of the three oldest Roman settlements in Germany. In 451, it was settled by the Huns.
Neuss grew during the Middle Ages because of its prime location on several routes, by the crossing of the great Rhine valley, and with its harbour and ferry. During the 10th century, the remains of the martyr and tribune Saint Quirinus, not to be confused with the Roman god Quirinus, had been relocated to Neuss. This resulted in pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Quirinus even from countries beyond the borders of the Holy Roman Empire. Neuss was first documented as a town in 1138.